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Geoinformation system in forestry

Authors: 
Korpetta D., Olenderek H., Tracz W.
Country of origin: 
PL
Year: 
2004
Abstract: 

The State Forests IT System (SILP) has been implemented in all forest districts since 1996. As far as detailed description of forest is concerned the most important module is the module named LAS. The module contains data about the smallest coherent unit, which is a forest stand (sub-compartment). Forest address, the unique number of each stand, is used to connect the SILP with the geographical information system. Information contained in each SILP module is also available in other modules. The LAS module, which contains over 100 attributes of forest stands, is also the most important module from the viewpoint of geographical information systems. Of course, the data contained in this module are spatially referenced, and that in natural way stimulates development of GIS in the State Forests.

Keywords: 

Forestry; Standard of the Forest Numerical Map; GIS

About: 

GIS in Polish forestry is one of the most advanced geoinformation system in Poland. It is develop year by year, the new methods for data collection and management are implemented.

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Probabilistic models of spatial phenomena in agriculture

Authors: 
Marciniak A.
Country of origin: 
PL
Year: 
2009
Source: 
Inzynieria Rolnicza 5(114)/2009
Abstract: 

Uncertainty, both stochastic and epistemic, occurring in models of space-time phenomena in agriculture justifies application of probabilistic methods in predication, clarifying and approximation of spatial objects. From methodological, computational and inferential point of view, in this case proper modelling technologies include Bayesian networks treated as knowledge representation systems. From this perspective modelling comes down to translation of knowledge from natural language to formal and executable language of Bayesian networks. Logical coherence and effectiveness of this definition of modelling process is shown on the example of building a model of wheat crop approximation and prediction.

Keywords: 

Agricultural and forest products; inverse finite element modeling; software development; artificial intelligence; artificial neural networks; object recognition; image processing and analysis; simulation and visualization of drying; drying; food quality; GIS; probabilistic prediction and approximation of spatial objects; Bayesian networks; decision support

About: 

In Poland a lot of academic research is connected with modelling of different aspects of agricultural systems by using various methods, software tools and notations. It is necessary to identify and specify attributes - input and output data for these systems, and these attributes can be useful for our project of standardization.

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Modelling of operation process for engineering facilities using dynamic bayesian networks

Authors: 
Bartnik G., Kusz A., Marciniak A.
Country of origin: 
PL
Year: 
2006
Source: 
Inzynieria Rolnicza 12/2006
Abstract: 

The paper presents application of dynamic Bayesian networks for modelling of reliability and support of decision-making processes regarding machinery operation on the exasmple of milk production line.

Keywords: 

Agricultural and forest products; inverse finite element modeling; software development; artificial intelligence; artificial neural networks; object recognition; image processing and analysis; simulation and visualization of drying; drying; food quality; GIS; probabilistic prediction and approximation of spatial objects; Bayesian networks; decision support

About: 

In Poland a lot of academic research is connected with modelling of different aspects of agricultural systems by using various methods, software tools and notations. It is necessary to identify and specify attributes - input and output data for these systems, and these attributes can be useful for our project of standardization.

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Analysis and classification of dried vegetables’ images with utilization of artificial neural networks

Authors: 
Koszela K., Weres J.
Country of origin: 
PL
Year: 
2005
Source: 
Inzynieria Rolnicza 2(62)/2005
Abstract: 

In everyday life we often evaluate our surroundings and on this basis we make decisions about the classification of the observed situation. We do it by watching our surroundings as well as by analysing the information coming to us from various sources by means of the knowledge and the abilities we posses. This process is completely natural for us. However, if we want a computer system to do it, we need to make many steps in order to partly reflect in the software the human ability to observe, learn and make the final decision on the basis of the possessed knowledge. The increasing complexity of information causes a rising demand for systems capable of recognizing and classifying objects presented to them. One of such objects are dried vegetables whose quality evaluation and classification cause many problems. In the thesis the concept of dried vegetables’ image analysis method was presented as well as its application to quick colour and shape evaluation of individual fractions in a tested sample.

Keywords: 

Agricultural and forest products; inverse finite element modeling; software development; artificial intelligence; artificial neural networks; object recognition; image processing and analysis; simulation and visualization of drying; drying; food quality; GIS; probabilistic prediction and approximation of spatial objects; Bayesian networks; decision support

About: 

In Poland a lot of academic research is connected with modelling of different aspects of agricultural systems by using various methods, software tools and notations. It is necessary to identify and specify attributes - input and output data for these systems, and these attributes can be useful for our project of standardization.

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Inverse finite element analysis of technological processes of heat and mass transport in agricultural and forest products

Authors: 
Weres J., Olek W.
Country of origin: 
PL
Year: 
2005
Source: 
Drying Technology 23(8)/2005
Abstract: 

Due to complexity of agricultural and forest products, the mathematical model coefficients are often dubious, as experimental determination of their values leads to erroneous results. To solve this problem an inverse finite element analysis software was developed to identify coefficient values of the heat and mass transport model and to predict and visualize the processes. The model reflected 3D structure of investigated systems comprising the heat conduction and moisture diffusion in heterogeneous, anisotropic, and irregularly shaped products represented by wood and cereal grain kernels. Test cases used to validate the software covered identification of the thermal conductivity, convective heat transfer coefficient, diffusion coefficient, equilibrium moisture content, and convective mass transfer coefficient in pine and beech wood, and also in corn. Implementation of the proposed optimization algorithm and improvement of the software functionality resulted in more effective and accurate identification of the coefficient values, demonstrated by increased accuracy and reliability of predicting the heat conduction and water diffusion processes.

Keywords: 

Agricultural and forest products; inverse finite element modeling; software development; artificial intelligence; artificial neural networks; object recognition; image processing and analysis; simulation and visualization of drying; drying; food quality; GIS; probabilistic prediction and approximation of spatial objects; Bayesian networks; decision support

About: 

In Poland a lot of academic research is connected with modelling of different aspects of agricultural systems by using various methods, software tools and notations. It is necessary to identify and specify attributes - input and output data for these systems, and these attributes can be useful for our project of standardization.

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Information system for analyzing, designing and managing drying and storage of cereal grains

Authors: 
Weres J., Kujawa S., Kluza T.
Country of origin: 
PL
Year: 
2007
Source: 
Proc. of the 6th Biennial Conference of EFITA / WCCA 2007, 2-5 July 2007, Glasgow, United Kingdom, ed. C. Parker et al., 6 pp. Glasgow: Glasgow Caledonian University (CD-ROM Edition)
Abstract: 

An integrated information system was developed to support analysis, design and management of drying and storage of agricultural products, in particular – cereal grains. The system was composed of six modules dedicated respectively to: 1) 3D geometry data acquiring for investigated objects, based on a developed image analysis system, 2) simulating grain kernel drying, based on developed finite element inverse and direct models, 3) visualizing 3D models of investigated objects and presenting temperature and moisture content changes in time and space, 4) managing databases related to cereal grain drying, 5) computing drying air properties, simulating technological processes of drying and estimating performance of various drying systems and driers, and 6) selecting appropriate equipment and conditions for drying cereal grains, based on a developed decision support system. The problem domain was analyzed according to the UML 2.0 standards, the software was implemented in C++/CLI and C#, and the system was statically and dynamically tested on a basis of appropriately designed test cases.

Keywords: 

Agricultural and forest products; inverse finite element modeling; software development; artificial intelligence; artificial neural networks; object recognition; image processing and analysis; simulation and visualization of drying; drying; food quality; GIS; probabilistic prediction and approximation of spatial objects; Bayesian networks; decision support

About: 

In Poland a lot of academic research is connected with modelling of different aspects of agricultural systems by using various methods, software tools and notations. It is necessary to identify and specify attributes - input and output data for these systems, and these attributes can be useful for our project of standardization.

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Agrarian www portal

Authors: 
P. Simek, J. Jarolimek, J. Vanek, E. Silerova, Z. Havlicek
Country of origin: 
CZ
Year: 
2009
Source: 
Czech University of Life Sciences - proceedings
Abstract: 

Together with the development of information technologies and also in compliance with worldwide trends information servers (websites) of a number of institutions and companies were gradually emerging on the Internet in the Czech Republic. The agrarian sector was not an exception. As far as agrarian sector is concerned, general features and principles of ICT use are applied also here. However, there are certain specifics defining this environment and clearly also a time lag in development, which is influenced by these conditions. The term „portal“ is mentioned on almost all the Internet eZins as the most suitable tool for providing access to information for a particular group of users. It is not possible to give an exact definition of the portal since there is always a certain view of a particular internet application, which could define it as a portal. The most general definition of the portal says it is an entrance to information, which are targeted to a differently wide group of users. From the very beginning the WWW Portal AGRIS project focuses on creating a platform for providing information in the field of agriculture, food industry, forestry and rural development, among many other related sectors. The aim is to provide access to already existing information sources, create its own news service and help to publish information provided by subjects, which have got limited opportunities for electronic (internet) presentation. This leads to producing a unified block of information from the same field, thus offering better access to information for corporal management, public administration, students, teachers, advisors and all the other users. The whole solution stands on general principles, it is modular and open. Therefore, it is possible to implement it in any other sector and field. This portal solution represents a third, so far the highest level of internet services structure. The research and development of the agrarian information system proper has been heading towards this stage already from the beginning.

Keywords: 

Information technologies; a platform for providing information in the field of agriculture; food industry; forestry and rural development

About: 

The portal was created in 1999 in cooperation with the Czech University of Life Sciences (formerly of Agriculture) Prague and the Ministry of Agriculture. At present, development of the portal depends on the Council of Experts consisting of the representatives of the following institutions: Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Computer Science, Institute of Nutrition and Agriculture Information, Institute of Agricultural Economics, Office for Statistics, Commodity Exchange, Agricultural Journalists and Publicist Club and others. It precisely responds to information requirements in the agrarian sector as well as information and communication technologies (ICT) development – there is already a third programme version at present. At the moment the agrarian WWW portal AGRIS represents an information source with the highest attendance in the sector.

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Forestry in situ monitoring and data management

Authors: 
Karel Charvat, Jan Jezek, , Marek Musil, Zbynek Krivanek,Paolo Capodieci
Country of origin: 
CZ
IT
Year: 
2009
Source: 
Proceedings ISAF 2009 (Information Systems in Agriculture and Forestry), Prague
Abstract: 

The new monitoring methods play important role in conservation of Forest Management Unit of forest stand from previous production cycle and also in protection of forest mainly in case of forest fires. This paper describes solution, which is developed in integration of projects Humboldt, c@r, EarthLookCZ, Winsoc and Geokrima.
The focus of solution is on line data collection and updating in the terrain. There is a requirement for client, which could be represented by PDA or eventually by sensors, the connection to the server. The distance between the server and the thin client may vary from a few hundred meters in case of mobile server to almost unlimited distance in case of the stationary server. The data compiled is being transferred between the client side and the server so the data transfer is rather low. The data volume in backward transfer is also very low (from client to server).There is no running application necessary on the client side except the internet browser. Possibly connected sensors and GPS (are served by applets and all the gathered data is being preceded on the server side. The thin is connected either to the stationary server or to the mobile server. The majority of the gathered geospatial data is processed on the remote application server according to the preset rules. This server will be placed in the LAN or Wan network environment. The possible communication could run trough mobile networks or trough transportable satellite receiver in car. The application server is accessing to the local or remote data sources and all the application logic is running on the server side. The data and applications must be accessed to the user via standard internet/internet connection. Interoperability is significantly extending the reuse possibilities of the information systems and so their value is increased.

Keywords: 

Forest communication; Mobile data management; Sensors technology; Dynamic; Geovisualisation; Risk management
Using SDI as a framework and a web-based GIS as a tool, emergency management can be facilitated by providing a better way of spatial data collection, access, management and usage.

About: 

The paper concentrated on analysis, approaches, and solutions fostering wider usage of data observation and visualization in forest fire protection. Naturally the fundamental item from which all processes start is existence of SDI which is not anymore only static sources of data but more and more getting new dynamic component. These aspects are closely connected with the possibility to add to the „static“ data also those coming in real time from sensors, remote sensing sources, and other new technological equipments. Delimitation of so called critical infrastructures is one of the key steps to find appropriate solution in emergency situation.
Three fundamental ones:
• interoperability, network, and applications:
and five additional ones:
• open environment, system flexibility, high quality communication infrastructure, information and system interoperability, and intelligent information sparing.

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A novel approach to Environmental Monitoring System for Landslides and Fire detection

Authors: 
Paolo Capodieci, Fabio Mengoni
Country of origin: 
IT
Year: 
2009
Source: 
GMES publication
Abstract: 

Sensor networks are currently receiving a considerable attention as a basic tool to detect events or monitor physical parameters for emergency or hazardous situations, like radiation, pollution, temperatures, pressures, and so on. One of the main problems in designing sensor networks is on one side, the high reliability required to the whole system and, on the other side, the potential unreliability of the single node. This paper describes the scope and the results reached with the project WINSOC. The project has been funded by the European Commission under FP6 Framework. In Winsoc has been developed a totally innovative design methodology where the high accuracy and reliability of the whole network is achieved by introducing a suitable coupling among adjacent, low cost, sensors, enabling a global distributed detection or estimation more accurate than that achievable by each single sensor, without the need for sending all the data to a fusion centre.

Keywords: 

WSN; Wireless Sensor Node; wireless ad-hoc network; Environmental monitoring; mobile ad hoc network (MANET); Natural Hazards; Wildfires.

About: 

Presently, WSNs (Wireless Sensor Node) typically measure physical variables as pressure, temperature, pH, humidity, light, gases/liquids, real-time location, cracks, vibration, shock, wind speed and direction.
Applications within environmental sustainability are large and varied: precision agriculture, coral reefs, lakes, space, wildfires, landslides are some of them. In particular, agriculture appears as the most promising in terms of business ─ WSNs help in precision irrigation, pesticide treatment, and harvesting so a reduction in environment damage can be achieved as decreasing the release of harmful chemicals and reducing the consumption of scarce energy; thus diminishing operational costs while increasing crop quality.
Environmental sensors connected to global information systems is one of the Selected Notes from the Millennium Project´s 2007 State of the Future Report. Also, as a consequence of the many natural disasters that took place during 2005, public focus is shifting from artificial blunders to natural calamities, thus creating considerable potential for smart sensors in environment monitoring systems.

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Regional Energy Wood Logistics - Optimizing Local Fuel Supply

Authors: 
Christian Kanzian, Franz Holzleitner, Karl Stampfer and Sarah Ashton
Country of origin: 
AT
Year: 
2009
Source: 
Silva Fennica Volume 43 Issue 1 Pages 113-128
Abstract: 

The promotion of electric energy production from solid biomass by the Austrian government has lead to a boom in the construction of new combined heat and power plants. The current total demand for wood chips in the research area for energy purposes is 70 400 m3 of loose volume chips per year. The expected increase in demand due to these new plants is more than 4 times greater than current demand: up to 302 700 m3 of loose volume per year. Even if the energy wood feedstock potential is satisfactory the design of the supply chain is still unresolved. The aim of this study is to give decision-makers a base for further development. To accomplish this we designed and tested four different supply scenarios: one for 9 plants and one for 16 plants. The scenarios were developed using a combination of geographic information systems (GIS) and linear programming methods. The results indicate that direct transport of solid fuel wood as round wood and chipping at the plant is the cheapest supply system with a resulting cost of 5.6–6.6 EUR/m3 loose. Using harvesting residues can only be recommended for large plants because of poor fuel quality. In this case residues would be chipped at or near the landing piled and transported via self-loading trucks at a cost between 8.4 and 9.1 EUR/m3 loose. In order to meet increasing demand and to ensure a continuous supply especially during the winter and spring seasons it is necessary to optimize the supply chain by including storage terminals. However using terminals and increased demand both lead to higher logistical costs. For example if the total volume is handled via terminals the average supply costs including storage will increase by 26%. Higher demand increases the costs by 24%.

Keywords: 

Energy wood logistics, Transport optimization using GIS methods

About: 

The paper presented an approach for optimizing fuel wood flows from landing to plant (chipping and transport) and optional terminal use based on traceable calculations of different scenarios. In the study a scenario based analysis and sensitivity analysis, which is common ways of dealing with uncertainty in data, was collected during a survey that measured demand and existing infrastructure for terminals. Flow of material from forest to terminal or conversion plant, were respectively analysed. The needs of database, dataflow and used methods for the static simulation and optimization were thoroughly discussed.

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