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Internet of Things – Strategic Research Roadmap

Authors: 
European Commission, Information Society and Media
Year: 
2009
Abstract: 

As a part of future trends and developments the coming Internet of Things will shape the world and the society – yet sound research work and applicable recommendations are necessary to guide Europe on its way and to make it beneficial for all citizens.

In order to reply to this challenge the Cluster of European Research Projects on the Internet of Things (CERP-IoT) developed in 2009 its Strategic Research Agenda (SRA), taking into account its experiences and the results from the ongoing exchange among European and international experts.
The present document proposes a list of research fields and a roadmap on future R&D until 2010, before 2015 and beyond 2020.
This initial CERP-IoT SRA version is part of a continuous IoT community dialogue initiated by the European Commission (EC) DG INFSO-D4 Unit for the European and international IoT stakeholders. The result is a lively one and will be updated with expert feedback from ongoing and next calls for proposals within the FP7 Framework Program on Research and Development in Europe.

The SRA for the Internet of Things is the result of a four-step collaboration between the members of the cluster research projects:
1. Elaboration of an IoT common definition about the meaning of "Things" and IoT visions, introducing the IoT concept and presenting the underlying vision
2. Identification of IoT Application Domains exploring the application domains for the future IoT
3. Identification of Technologies that will drive the IoT development and supporting the IoT vision
4. Formulation of an IoT Research Agenda, presenting the research challenges and priorities, the standardization issues and the security and privacy concerns that have to be addressed and solved over the next decade

As a result the main outcomes could be summarized as follows:
• The Internet of Things is an integrated part of Future Internet and could be defined as a dynamic global network infrastructure with self configuring capabilities based on standard and interoperable communication protocols where physical and virtual “things” have identities, physical attributes, virtual personalities and use intelligent interfaces, and are seamlessly integrated into the information network.
• The vision of Future Internet based on standard communication protocols considers the merging of computer networks, Internet of Media (IoM), Internet of Services (IoS), and Internet of Things (IoT) into a common global IT platform of seamless networks and networked “things”. This future network of etworks will be laid out as public/private infrastructures and dynamically extended and improved by terminals created by the “things” connecting to one another.
• We envisage that the Internet of Things will allow people and things to be connected Anytime, Anyplace, with Anything and Anyone, ideally using Any path/network and Any service.
• The concept of Internet of Things can be regarded as an extension of the existing interaction between humans and applications through the new dimension of “Things” communication and integration.
- The main identified IoT application domains are:
- Aerospace and aviation,
- Automotive,
- Telecommunications,
- Intelligent Buildings,
- Medical Technology, Healthcare,
- Independent Living,
- Pharmaceutical,
- Retail, Logistics, Supply Chain Management,
- Manufacturing, Product Lifecycle Management,
- Oil and Gas
- Safety, Security and Privacy,
- Environment Monitoring,
- People and Goods Transportation,
- Food traceability,
- Agriculture and Breeding,
- Media, entertainment and Ticketing,
- Insurance,
- Recycling

The main IoT technologies presented allow identifying the research and development challenges and outlining a roadmap for future research activities to provide practical and reliable solutions.

This roadmap forms the basis for the research priorities presented and these IoT enabling technologies are:
• Identification Technology,
• Internet of Things Architecture Technology,
• Communication Technology,
• Network Technology,
• Network Discovery,
• Software and algorithms,
• Hardware,
• Data and Signal Processing Technology,
• Discovery and Search Engine Technologies,
• Relationship Network Management Technologies,
• Power and Energy Storage Technologies,
• Security and Privacy Technologies,
• Standardisation

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Future Internet Enterprise Systems (FInES) Research Roadmap

Authors: 
European Commission, Information Society and Media
Year: 
2010
Abstract: 

The Future Internet Enterprise Systems (FInES) Research Roadmap aims at defining new research
challenges, in the context of a general reference framework for European enterprises, for the FInES
research domain. Such research challenges are motivated by a long-term, highly innovative vision,
with 2020 as the time horizon.
The Roadmap builds upon the baseline established in existing key Cluster reference documents, in
particular the FInES Cluster Position Paper that has expressed the first global vision and policy, and
research recommendations following the re-orientation of the FInES Cluster. The latter has brought
together constituencies of three major research streams: Enterprise Interoperability, Enterprise
Collaboration, and Digital Ecosystems. This research roadmap intends to address ICT-based enterprise
innovation with a futuristic, even provocative, perspective; leading potentially to incremental and
emergent or radical and revolutionary changes in thinking, practices, products, processes, or
organizations.
The FInES Research Roadmap is a collective effort of all interested stakeholders in the FInES Cluster,
spearheaded by the FInES Research Task Force. This document is an input to the next FP7 ICT Work
Programme 2011-12.

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European Technology Platform on Food for Life - Strategic Research Agenda 2007-2020

Authors: 
Food4Life
Year: 
2007
Abstract: 

The European Technology Platform Food for Life has developed a Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) following
an extensive programme of national, regional and web consultations with its principal stakeholders (consumers and society, industry, academia and the research community). This SRA represents the priorities
for research, communication, training and knowledge transfer in the food sector for the coming years as a
basis for improving the competitiveness of the largest manufacturing and distributing industry in Europe, as
well as ensuring that European citizens are supplied with a healthy, safe, varied, affordable, ethically-produced and environmentally-sensitive food supply.

Knowledge generation and knowledge exploitation are essential in driving an effective innovation agenda.
This SRA addresses both of these elements in order that the ETP Vision can be fully realised. Research
priorities have been identified that cover all scientific and technological areas that are relevant to the production, manufacture and distribution of food with specific attention being paid to identifying the social
(consumer) science studies that are necessary if the consumer's desires and trust in the food supply are to
be met. The document describes the benefits of this research to stakeholder communities.

The research challenges in six key areas are defined. These are:
1. Ensuring that the healthy choice is the easy choice for consumers,
2. Delivering a healthier diet,
3. Developing quality food products,
4. Assuring safe foods that consumers can trust,
5. Achieving sustainable food production, and
6. Managing the food chain.

However, successful implementation of the ETP's programme will require further prioritisation according to:
■ the importance of the societal challenge,
■ the economic impact, and
■ the need for a major, long-term investment in multidisciplinary, multi-national knowledge generation and
dissemination.

When these criteria are applied, three key thrusts emerge; these involve research that will lead to improved
competitiveness of the agro-food industry by developing new processes, products and tools that:
A. Improve health, well-being and longevity,
B. Build consumer trust in the food chain, and
C. Derive from sustainable and ethical production.
Focus on these thrusts, which will lead to a quantum leap in new innovation opportunities, must be encompassed through a European food research strategy. They must be implemented effectively, and with sufficient resources made available to deliver outputs over the next decade and beyond. These thrusts will be
addressed in detail in a subsequent ETP Food for Life Implementation Plan but it is already evident that, if
it is to have maximal impact, the research effort must be innovation-driven rather than simply research-led.
Given that the overwhelming majority (>95%) of European food producers are SMEs, who are usually unaware of the benefits of engaging and fully participating in R&D activities, there will need to be an
improvement in existing structures, and/or new initiatives undertaken, to engage the interest and involvement of the SME sector in public and private sector research activities. The ETP has established an SME
Task Force to address this important issue. The challenge of how best to involve the SME sector in
research activities is being actively considered.

ETP Food for Life has given particular attention to the changes that are necessary throughout Europe to
enhance awareness of the impact that research could make on business efficiency, costs of production and
more robust markets. Particular stress has been placed on identifying new, effective measures in communication, training and knowledge transfer activities, both as a means of ensuring increased consumer
trust and understanding of food science and technology, and in engaging the industry.

To achieve the goals of the ETP Food for Life it will be necessary to encourage change throughout the
food research community of Europe and the national organisations that support the public sector food
research base, to ensure it becomes more innovationdriven. Greater flexibility in responding to change is
required within these institutions. The resources necessary to meet the research, social and economic
objectives identified by the ETP must be effectively utilised and duplication of investment by national and
European administrations should be prevented. In its turn, research communities need to become more
aware of their need to engage industry and the consumer.

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European ICT Strategic Research Agenda for Agri-food & Rural development: A vision for 2015

Authors: 
AMI@Netfood
Year: 
2006
Abstract: 

The AMI@Netfood Strategic Research Agenda will:
• Support sustainable rural and regional development to improve competitiveness at a pan-European level.
• Improve the level of consumer confidence in food manufacturing in Europe.
• Support coordination between key policy makers throughout Europe.
• Contribute to sustainable rural development throughout Europe.
• Promote the ‘fork to farm’ approach to add value to the food chain, giving producers a better understanding of consumer requirements by integrating their demands (particularly in reference to quality and safety) at each level of the supply chain.

In addition, the European Strategic Research Agenda will:
• Provide an effective and sustained interaction between all stakeholders.
• Present a well-defined Strategic Research Agenda (SRA) for innovative food production and rural development.
• Offer a set of Pilot joint activities to promote the participation of key stakeholders throughout Europe for the future development of rural agricultural areas and key agrifood industry.
• Ensure increased participation of rural residents in agricultural working life through innovations in collaborative technologies
• Ensure increased confidence in the food supply among European consumers.

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2016: The Future Value Chain

Authors: 
Global Commerce Initiative, Capgemini, Intel
Year: 
2006
Abstract: 

The speed of change and a sense of urgency will drive the evolution of the value chain over the next decade.
Is the industry ready? Are you ready?

When Dutch retailer Royal Ahold opened its first store in Shanghai in 1996 it took just three years for Chinese consumers to adapt to a new way of shopping—that is, not buying the livestock at the “wet market” anymore. “This was three times faster than the 10 years it took for Europe to make the shift from service shops to supermarkets in the 1950s,” said Ruud van der Pluijm, Vice President, B2B eCommerce, Royal Ahold. “How much faster will those kinds of changes take place on our way to 2016?”

This rapidly accelerating speed of change and a sense of urgency about the future led the GCI to enlist the help of leading retailers, consumer products manufacturers, logistics service providers and technology companies to develop a vision of the future value chain. The premise was that by 2016 the retail and consumer products industry will have changed, but in what ways?

To answer that question, it’s necessary to consider both the external and industry forces driving change and
their impact on the value chain. The key contextual or external trends that will shape the industry in the coming 10 years can be grouped into five areas:
■ Economic issues, including the reshuffling of the world’s top economies, the growing gap between industrialised and developing countries, as well as a focus on social responsibility among the more
developed countries in areas such as fair trading.
■ Ecological issues, including energy and fuel scarcity and efficiency, sustainability and waste management.
■ Changing demographics, such as the shift in global population, urbanisation and cross-border migration.
■ New technologies, such as virtual reality, quantum computers and information networks, have the potential to make data, people and objects accessible everywhere and immediately.
■ Regulatory forces, including extended legislation on health and wellness (for example, labelling of
products) and privacy standards.

While these trends are largely outside the control of the industry, retailers and consumer products companies
must consider the impact of these external forces on their business and determine how best to respond to
the changes that will be brought about as a result of their impact.

At the same time, there will be key industry trends that will affect the future value chain, particularly in the areas of consumer behaviour, information flow and product flow. These include the emergence of the “smart consumer,” differentiation of the buying experience, rich-media information, greater personalisation, the shift from products to services and solutions, and the commoditisation of quality. In contrast to the external or contextual forces, the industry does have the power to shape these internal forces.

Inventing the Future
The convergence of these external and industry trends will drive the evolution of the value chain. Turning this
vision into reality will require that the industry focus on six critical areas of opportunity for growth and improved performance.

1. Shopper dialogue: The industry has an opportunity to better serve shoppers by creating a two-way dialogue with them, helping them make more informed decisions, and linking the store and the home with emerging in-house and consumer technology.

2. Information sharing: Companies must be prepared to share standards-based data free of charge. Sharing information (such as supply chain events) between trading partners will result in an improved information flow and, as a consequence, improved collaboration to better serve the consumer. A resulting collaborative information platform could become the basis for further supply chain solutions, like demand-driven ordering and collaborative promotion planning.

3. Synchronised production: The industry must use the improved dialogue with the household and the technological connection with the customer to help the industry make more informed decisions, share plans and better synchronise production with actual demand. This also relies on full integration of upstream suppliers of raw materials, ingredients and packaging. Distributed manufacturing, flow consolidation and a “final assembly” model may play a role in the move towards “lean” production.

4. Integrated logistics/home fulfilment: As the industry is confronted with less available energy and fuel, more city regulations, increases in working capital and a sharp rise in home shopping, it will move from retailer brand-centric logistics to geographic-centric logistics. Strategies will include consolidated distribution, dynamic route planning, and more effective transport sharing and backhauling.

5. Sustainability: Sustainability aims to achieve a higher quality of life for everyone. Economic development, social development and environmental protection are mutually reinforcing components. The three key objectives are: eradicating poverty, protecting natural resources and creating sustainable production and consumption.

6. Company cultural and behavioural changes: Building the new value chain vision starts with information sharing within and between enterprises. Other critical cultural and behavioural changes will include organisational development, improved trust, and new measures and rewards to support the better alignment of strategic and tactical thinking.

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Business Process Modelling in Demand‐Driven Agri‐Food Supply Chains

Authors: 
Cor N. Verdouw Adrie J.M. Beulens Jacques H. Trienekens Sjaak Wolfert
Country of origin: 
The Netherlands
Year: 
2010
Source: 
Proceedings of the 4th International European Forum on System Dynamics and Innovation in Food Networks, 8 - 12 February, 2010, Innsbruck
Abstract: 

Agri‐food companies increasingly participate in demand‐driven supply chains that are able to adapt flexibly to changes in the marketplace. The objective of this presentation is to discuss a process modelling framework, which enhances the interoperability and agility of information systems as required in such dynamic supply chains. The designed framework consists of two parts: an object system definition and a modelling toolbox. The object system definition provides a conceptual definition of business process in demand‐driven supply chains from a systems perspective. It includes an application of the Viable Systems Model of Stafford Beer to supply chains, and classifications of business processes, control systems and coordination mechanisms. The modelling toolbox builds on the terminology and process definitions of SCOR and identifies three types of process models:
i) Product Flow Models: visualize the allocation of basic transformations to supply chain actors and the related product flows from input material into end products (including different traceability units based on the GS1 Global Traceability Standard);
ii) Thread Diagrams: visualize how order‐driven and forecast‐driven processes are decoupled in specific supply chain configurations (positions Customer Order Decoupling Points), and how interdependences between processes are coordinated;
iii) Business Process Diagrams: depict the sequence and interaction of control and coordination activities (as identified in Thread Diagrams) in BPMN notation.
The framework is applied to several agri‐food sectors, in particular potted plants and fruit supply chains. The
main benefits are:
i) It helps to map supply chain processes, including its control and coordination, in a timely, punctual and coherent way;
ii) It supports a seamless translation of high‐level supply chain designs to detailed information engineering models;
iii) It enables rapid instantiation of various supply chain configurations (instead of dictating a single blueprint);
iv) It combines sector‐specific knowledge with reuse of knowledge provided by generic cross‐industry standards (SCOR, GS1).

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Process modelling in demand-driven supply chains: A reference model for the fruit industry

Authors: 
Verdouw, C. N. Beulens, A. J. M. Trienekens, J. H. Wolfert, J.
Country of origin: 
The Netherlands
Year: 
2010
Source: 
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture
Abstract: 

The growing importance of health in consumption is expected to result in a significant increase of European fruit demand. However, the current fruit supply does not yet sufficiently meet demand requirements. This urges fruit supply chains to become more demand-driven, that is, able to continuously match supply capabilities to changing demand requirements. Realisation of such dynamic supply chains requires the design of customised supply chain configurations and subsequently the engineering of enabling information systems. Reference process models can be valuable means to support this. Based on a case study in four European countries, this paper presents a reference model for designing business processes in demand-driven fruit supply chains. The model consists of a reference modelling framework and an application of the framework to fruit supply chains. The framework defines process models at different levels of abstraction and includes a method of how they can be composed from a repository of building blocks. The applied model comprises a definition of the model building blocks in fruit supply chains and a set of pre-configure models (templates). Together, they combine fruit-specific knowledge with the reuse of generic knowledge as captured in cross-industry standards. The developed reference model bridges the gap between supply chain design and information systems engineering by providing a consistent set of process models that are on the one hand understandable for business managers and on the other hand serve as a basis for information system implementation.

Keywords: 

Business process modelling
Supply chain management
Reference models
Fruit industry

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Integration of land registry data and EU subsides applications: domestic regulations (Italy) (Integration of land registry data and real estate advertising as guarantee for buyers)

Authors: 
L. Russo
Country of origin: 
IT
Year: 
2008
Source: 
XXXVIII Incontro di Studio del Ce.S.E.T (proceedings)
Abstract: 

Italian rules concerning the integration between land registry data base and the aplications for EC 1782/03 funds. Domestic laws and legal aspects are investigated.

Keywords: 

egal aspects are relevant for the integration of such DBs, rules are complex and mandatory, land registry updating is the crucial point

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Towards a cross-cultural typology of trust in B2B food trade

Authors: 
M.Fritz
Country of origin: 
DE
Year: 
2010
Source: 
grey literature
Abstract: 

The typology presented here is derived from an extensive literature study and a limited set of expert interviews. The typology is designed to be valid for all European cultures,. There are no very collectivistic, hierarchical, uncertainty tolerant or long-term oriented cultures, and this may limit the typology’s validity. Power distance in particular is a predictor of corruption (Hofstede & Hofstede, 2005). Collectivism is a predictor of more personalistic trade relationships. So it can be predicted that personalistic trust elements will be more prevalent in South-Eastern Europe. As far as sellers are concerned, it appears critical to pay attention to the many facets that are involved in the trust that buyers place in them. In the eye of a buyer, the typology may be more like a process chain: if any link is weak, the chain snaps and trust is destroyed. If the buyer has other options, he or she will not return. From the point of view of buyers, this typology may be useful for reflecting on their own preferences for building trust. It can help them to critically re-examine who they trust and why, and check whether they are in line with the characteristics of the product. This typology could also suggest investigation of some of the aspects about which the buyer lacks knowledge. For both buyers and sellers, however, it is worthwhile investigating whether the elements that one party deems important are actually the elements that the other party deems important to forming trusting B2B relationships. The typology can help to discover and repair discrepancies.

Keywords: 

Role of trust, Extensive literature list on the topic

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Analysis of information resources dedicated to ICT on the Green Web in France and Italy

Authors: 
Waksman G., Zanasi C.
Country of origin: 
IT
FR
Year: 
2003
Source: 
EFITA 2003 proceedings
Abstract: 

The aim of this paper is to analyze and compare the present situation and possible development of information resources dedicated to ICT for the agri-food sector in Italy and France. Two information resources (portals and newsletters) are identified and two case studies are reported, webagri.it, an Italian information portal and the ACTA Informatique weekly newsletter, sent to about twenty thousand subscribers. Organizational aspects and achievements are described from both qualitative and quantitative points of view. The results show obvious differences between the two experiences, related to adopted solutions, country specific contexts and attitudes towards the Internet services. In France, the competition between Internet services' promoters remains stiff, despite the crisis of the New Economy, and increasing demand by users. Thus, an efficient technological watch is appreciated by both users and service providers. In Italy, the degree of competition is much lower. Given the relatively recent development of the agricultural Internet, information suppliers are less motivated. As long as portals dedicated to ICT for Agriculture do not attract enough users, the development of mailing lists and newsletters will be the most efficient way to promote the use of the Internet by farmers, advisors, and all organizations providing Agriculture and rural areas with goods and services.

Keywords: 

The promotion of agricultural Internet services and other IT solutions remains insufficient, particularly in Italy, maybe because the economic dimension of agri-food sector enterprises is too small, Users do not wish to pay to use the service; There is no simple way to let users pay for the service, except when portals or newsletters are tools for their promoters to advertise e.g. their own ICT products and services, but advertisements by third parties prove to be a limited resource, Portal management is very demanding in terms of organisation, manpower and financial

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